Biology Short Answer Questions


1. Describe the characteristics of all living things.

All living organisms carry out the processes of life. Cells constitute living organisms. Living organisms move from one place to another. Movement is a characteristic of living organisms. Respiration is an important process occurring in living organisms and energy will be released from glucose in each cell. Organisms have the characteristic to detect the stimuli and respond to it. Some organisms are provided with reflex action. Organisms grow with the production of new cells and reproduce generating offspring. Harmful substances and waste matter are eliminated from the body by the process of excretion. Food is consumed to get energy and for nutrition. Living organisms also metabolize, adapt to the environment, maintain homeostasis and possess high level of organisation.


2 : Identify the percentages of cellular composition by both volume and weight.

The type of cell, its volume and myocardium’s numerical composition are of great importance in tissues relating to the heart. In an adult rat, the volume composition of myocardium is around 80% to 83% of myocytes. The remaining part consists of fibrocytes, connective tissue and other types of cells. The tissue for heart muscle in a rat weighing 200-g has only 20% to 25% cells of heart muscles. The majority of the cells have the very small-sized endothelial cells and other cells of the connective tissue that is interstitial.

3. Describe the functions of the cell membrane.

A great number of specific functions are performed by cell membrane. The membrane of the cell functions like a barrier between the outside of a cell and its inner components. The environments of the two sides of the cell membrane can be different. These differences are controlled by the cell to maximize the functioning of the cytoplasm’s chemical machinery. Minor changes are caused in the internal environment also by the cell due to the movement of matter across the cell membrane in a controlled fashion. These changes are the ways in which cells react to the outside environment.


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