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Immigration Policies Essay
Category: False, Posted on: 10/26/2018 10:21:52 PM


  


 



Topic 2: Position on Immigration Policies



 



 



 



 



 



 



 



 



 



Immigration and Policies



The concept of immigration and policies pertaining to the same relates to the movement of a person  from one side of the border towards the other side into another country and the related policy which gives the legal ability to a person to either work or stay in the other country.  The policies of immigration can be by and large varied depending on allowing absolutely no migration to free migration. Many a times, social commitments, religious as well as racial attributes also play integral roles in cases of policies related to immigration. The policy of ethnic relationship can broadly be described in terms of either assimilationist or multi-culturalist policy respectively. Nowadays, the immigration policies have been increasingly found to be   closely related to other policies and issues in many cases.



There has been quite a few numbers of issues in the field of ethics which are related to global migration. Most significantly, the obligations which are related on moral grounds as in the case of societies which are democratic and liberal arise while accepting immigrants. Though this is significant, yet very few philosophers have actually stressed on its importance and they have mostly defended the views which are directly linked to the conventional views pertaining to immigration and policies related to the same. There is a wide and varied nature of discretion which exists amongst the liberal states regarding immigration policies and they general accept those immigrants who are talented, have assets or a particular skill or characteristic feature which would have a long term profit for the nation are generally accepted and generally restrict the immigration as per their views (Walter., 2012)



Of late, it has been well documented that few liberalist people have argued the terms of argument with respect to immigration policies. Joseph Carens, a well known liberalist have put forward a defence towards the restrictions and the corresponding guidelines which are highly inconsistent and has worked towards the achievement of ideas related to freedom, equality in opportunity, as well as equality in the field of morality. As per Carens view, the liberal states have very open and wider perspective as they go forward and accept perspective immigrants who would like to be a part of this country. Another argument which has been put forward by Frederick Welan and Shelly Wilcox endorse the fact that those liberally democratic societies who are affluent find it their moral responsibility to let immigrants who are in need to better facilities and different other parameters within their country as a responsible step towards mitigating injustices being done.



            Concept of Open Border



An open border with controlled attribute allows migration of people but poses certain restrictions too. Most of the times, a valid VISA is mandatory to reach the other country and different methods are available with those countries who exercise open control of borders so as to document and record the entry and exist of people in and out of borders so that there is traceable information to ensure if the legal terms and conditions of the host country like USA which maintains controlled open border policy (Walter., 2012).



            s a result of large scale of movement of people across the world and especially to developed countries like USA for varied reasons like higher education, employment, vacations and a host of other plausible reasons, internal checking at various levels have been vital to ensure the entry or overstay of illegal undocumented foreign nationals. It has been found that mostly, all international borders including USA operate on controlled border mode. Quite often, though due to the lack of personnel who could guide the borders, the borders might remain open and in such cases these borders become open borders in the absence of internal enforcement agencies.



Role of leaders in policy making



            Various leaders from time to time including George Bush and Barack Obama have declared that there is a strong need to overhaul the present economic system which is getting broken in a dramatic manner. Though there were vital differences as far as reform plans are concerned where, on one side, George Bush laid stress on programs for temporary workers as well as initiatives for enforcement, Barack Obama stressed on providing a legal existence to all those people who were illegal and unauthorised (Jan et al., 2011) As per their opinion, there are significant positive contributions which have been rendered by these immigrants in America. Overall, thought the approach is different, but the thoughts indicating towards a common goal have been well documented (Jan et al., 2011).



Illegal Immigration- Economical and political scenario



Immigration attributes and the corresponding mechanisms of legalities which are associated with migration of low skilled workers have not been worked out properly as per the demands of the US employers. The legal circle demands the presence of green card which is issued by the US immigration law whereby it is mandatory to have the presence of a very close family member in the country or by obtaining temporarily drawn work visas. The low skilled labour personnel generally gain an entry through H2A and H2B visa and that comprises of hardly 1% of the population. As a result of the large scale illegal immigration and the problems there in, President Obama has promised to take significant steps to solve the issues pertaining to illegal immigration in America.



Relevant Strategies



To reduce illegal immigration initially, and to stop it in the subsequent stages, an enforcement strategy has been designed where by a greater amount of security could be provided in the borders and also in the interiors of US so as to protect the entry of illegal immigrants and also subsequent employment of unauthorised people by convincing and asking them to leave to their home country. Another noted strategy includes the accommodation strategy whereby the illegal immigrants would be provided legal help and options so that they could convert their status into citizens of America.



The US way of controlling borders before the dreaded 9/11 incident



The different campaigns which got initiated after the 9/11 incident in order to have a secured border was somehow similar to the attacks which happened in 1990’s when there was an unprecedented breakdown of anti immigration flush recorded across the lines of USA-Mexico which lead to the initiation of enforcement campaigns which were of very high profile like operation green keeper which was implemented in the southern parts of San Diego and Operation Hold the line which was accomplished in El Paso thereby triggering a rapid expansion of services pertaining to immigration and Naturalization-INS. The overall budget for INS since 1990s has become triple which has made it one of the fastest growing agencies with federalist aptitude.



If the number of Border Patrol agents are to be considered, in San Diego sector alone, there are as many agents as there used to be across the entire stretch of 2000 miles south west border more than a decade ago. The military force of US also played a significant role during the drug war which happened in the southern part of the country. Simultaneously, while on one side the policymakers and the leaders were trying to establish a more secured border, they were also putting significant steps towards the formation of a friendlier atmosphere so as to accommodate the NAFTA requirements. Thus, there was formation of an economy which was borderless and at the same time barricaded. The demarcation of the borders became sharp as well as blurred at the same time paradoxically. Overall, since the beginning of NAFTA, 10 new ports were build which totalled to 49 ports so as to accommodate the crossing growths thereby constructing a few bridges which were business friendly so that the borders of USA and Mexico appeared to be policed barriers.



The US way of controlling borders after the dreaded 9/11 incident



The business has become much less tolerated across the border post 9/11 incident. To counter the effects of terrorism, the success rate has been perceived to be little higher compared to the controls pertaining to cases of drugs, though the deterrent level could be as high as 100%. However, it is difficult due to the fact that when it has been virtually impossible to regulate the entry of unauthorized people with truck loads of drugs, then it would be equally tougher to get a hint about those who are entering illegally with an intention of causing terrorism. The success histories of counter terrorisms are quite less and whenever, it did happen, they were very secretive in nature. Thus, post 9/11 the budget allocation towards security and illegal migration increased manifold and strict laws and regulations were set up for the same.



Features of Immigration Policy



There have been different schools of thought regarding the exact nature regarding the immigration reforms. Some suggest that it should be comprehensive while others go in favour of it either being piecemeal or incremental. Practically, the laws pertaining to immigration should regularly be validated, cross checked and updated in the wake of reflective scenarios which are ongoing in the political and economic circle as well as addressing the humanitarian concerns to foreign policy.



The paralysed scenario in the field of reforms related to immigration which have occurred due to gridlock in the congress have been documented from time to time and points have been raised where time to time monitoring did not happen regarding admission numbers as well as legality of immigration per se. Thus acknowledging the plight of unauthorised immigrants whose number is close to 11 million is highly difficult job. In a situation where systematic overhaul is being considered by both president as well as the political party, where by the members are trying to introduce bills which are specifically targeted and individualistic in nature.



To improve the overall system, the role for both are pivotal and the most important feature includes the coordination which should exist amongst the various proposals so as to establish a solid cohesive law set which acknowledges the important issues pertaining to reforms of immigration in today’s scenario- which include the ability to discourage illegal, unauthorized migration as well as a better and improved legal immigration system together with providing a concrete solution to the issues of these existing illegal migrants amounting to approximately 11 million people and generate rules so that they could ultimately obtain citizenship of the country.



Present scenario of immigration and a perfect immigration policy in 2014 for USA



The recent surge over the migration of children across the US borders from Mexico spurred a reform in the conventional US policy for immigration where by numerous photographs and video footages of immigrants showcase the heart touching stories of separated families who live with a continuous of anxiety of losing their lives or near and dear ones which has forced the present US government to develop and form an immigration policy which is comprehensive in nature. The various stories which have been documented about individuals who dream of becoming US citizens and would love to stay in the close vicinity of family which is a distant dream reminds that these ongoing issues cannot be just restricted to political or economical reforms. The basic right of leading a healthy and recognised family life has become tough for these immigrants.



In 2013, an immigration bill was passed by the US Senate with a hope to serve as a comprehensive solution for the otherwise fragmented immigration system thereby putting an end to the sufferings of millions of these illegal immigrants in the country. Another bill based upon the economic opportunity, modernization of immigration, and border security act known as the Senate Bill 744, has a gateway for these illegal immigrants whereby they can stay with their families together securely. This bill would definitely restrict illegal entry further as well as secure the needs and basic rights of the present immigrants. The various hardships faced by them include unnecessary detainment, or deport without prior intimation as well as the inability to stay with their family members. These workers are regularly abused and in many cases, they are not paid their due wages or even face sexual harassment but cannot raise their voice or seek justice due to the fragmented immigration system prevalent in USA. There has been tremendous increase in security measures in areas where US is bordered with Mexico or Canada. These increased security beefs have also led to increased deaths and allegations of abuse amongst immigrants many of whom generally run away to avoid violence or may be want to unite with their respective families. President Obama has been compelled by the Human rights bodies to seek immigration based on protection and full respect for the families of immigrants. The work places where they work should also state clear laws whereby crimes are not committed there. The legalisation of basic rights as well as efforts to focus the general day to day threats being faced by them at various places on a regular basis should be addressed. The arbitrary system thus has to be worked out so that these immigrants can lead a normal life with their families as well as work with dignity and security (Patrics  et al., 2014)



Pending Immigration bills



Large number of immigration bills has been laid down in the House of Representatives during the 113th congress, but till April, 2014 no concrete legislation which specifically focuses on immigration policy and reform have been laid down. A variety of bills pertaining to the same issue when introduced also received votes on the floor.



SAFE ACT:



To expand the internal enforcement and to take a lead towards a number of enforcement measures which are highly punitive in nature, the SAFE act was introduced where the authorities working in the field of immigration reforms would be shifted to those localities where there were illegal enforcements (Congressional Budget office., 2014). The act mostly relied on the principle of attrition by extending enforcement.



SKILLS Visa Act:



As per this act, the employment is generally increased for both immigrant and non immigrant personnel where the visas are based on the skills of immigrants, STEM graduates or perspective entrepreneurs thereby decreased type of immigration which is family based in nature. The elimination of the existing diversity visa program definitely affects a certain section of nationalities like Indian and Chinese who are eliminated to a large extent (Congressional Budget office, 2014)



H.R. 1773, the Agricultural Guest Worker Act



             This act has been created for the H-2C agricultural worker VISA program as a replacement for the existing H2-A program. This visa is temporary and would under no circumstance lead to a permanent residence in the country and also exclude the family members of the workers availing this visa. The people who remain undocumented after the expiry of the visa need to leave for their home country immediately as the status of this visa cannot be changed.  There is no clause for those experienced agricultural workers who are skilled but undocumented and upon whom a large section of the employers of agricultural sectors highly depend (HR, 2013 act)



 



Conclusion



With changing times, it has been realised that the undocumented illegal migrants be provided the basic amenities together with opportunities so as to convert their illegal status into legal terms. As a developed country, it is the responsibility of the leaders (President) to take constructive steps regarding the same for the existing group on humanitarian grounds  as well as pass stringent immigration policy to stop or decrease further illegitimate entry within US borders.



 



 



 



 



 



 



 



 



 



 



 



 



 



 



 



 



 







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