Media Studies- Test and answers
Category: False, Posted on: 10/26/2018 10:13:40 PM


Faisal -Media Studies( Abdullah Alzuabi)



  1. The media -in all their various forms, from newspapers to radio talk shows to Internet chat rooms try to bring understanding to events that affect us all. Drawing from that statement found in the first chapter of your textbook, discuss one example of how you have come to understand a particular event through the media.


      An example of the event which I came to understand well through media is Brexit.  I came to note that there is a event called Brexit through social media. Brexit relates to the exit of Britain from the European Union (EU), which is formed by many of the European countries for promoting various administrative, legal, commercial and economic aspects among themselves.  I understood from the media that Brexit affects not only Britain and other EU members, but also the overall international relations. The process looked complex for me, and I could understand the positives and negatives of Brexit for United Kingdom mainly due to links shared on social media. 

  1. Mary Shelley's "Frankenstein", written in 1818, is given as an example of how a story has developed and changed over time through various media interpretations. Identify another example ( other than "Frankenstein") of such a transformation and discuss whether you like the original or the transformation, and why.


Considering "Frankenstein" of Mary Shelley, which was written in 1818, there  are different interpretations of Frankenstein made based on various things like post-natal depression, race and slavery. In the Frankenstein, the monster is seen to be at the boundary of the civilized society and it falls into the uncivilized society. The closeness of the monster to the humans further indicates new types of monstrous traits, as man unites with monster. 

Similar to the Frankenstein is the case of Grendel in the Beowulf. Grendel is portrayed as a very evil person, as his actions cause death and pain. Some others see Grendel as causing uncontrolled blood-feud. A few others see Grendel as a cannibal and serious demon. Grendel was also viewed as religious symbol of evil. In the 2007 movie of Beowulf by Robery Zemekis ,Grendel was shown as a deformed and diseased creature.

3. Define and discuss the "linear" model of interpreting media. The original model created by Shannon and WEaver left out "feedback" in its design, a significant weakness. Why is it difficult  to identity feedback in any model of mass media processes?

The linear model attempts to give an explanation of the process of sending and receiving of the messages through the channels of mass communication. The model was considered to be outdated as it sees the communication through mass media to be linear. In the process of message transmission, the gatekeepers of information like executive TV producers  and news editors  screen and filter the messages  and provide them the content. In this process, feedback was provided to gatekeepers or senders from the receivers.  But the fact is that the linear model does not allow media messages to progress in smooth fashion from sender to receiver as receivers do not have much control over the decoding process. The sent messages could be misunderstood.

   It is difficult identity feedback in any model of mass media processes because communication encoding can be done by any sensory route, while majority of communication takes place through auditory and visual channels. The receiver passively collects the message. The process of taking feedback is also exhausting and consuming.

4. Since bookmarking and manuscript copying in the Western world was done by cloistered clergy in monasteries in the middle ages. most medieval books are:


  • very thin since curing the animal hides was a very hard process


  • secular law books documenting declarations of the monarchy


  • sacred texts such as the Bible or liturgical manuscripts


  • without text since most clergy did not know how to read or write.


5. Gutenberg, who invented moveable type, published a 42-line-per-page Bible with:  a converted wine press.

6. After the first two portable "e-readers" were initially introduced in 1998, sales were reported slow, funding for the projects was slow, and potential competitors were dropping out. In other words, e-books and e-readers were failures when first introduced



Accessing any resources you prefer, define the following terms relating to book publishing

7. Vanity press

Vanity press or vanity publisher can defined as a publishing house, where authors make payment for the sake of publishing of the books. It was considered to be a 'vain enterprise' as self-publishing was found to be amateurish. There is criteria for selection of the books to be published for the vanity press, compared to bigger publishing houses. The vanity press is not selective like commercial publication. This press gives greater independence to authors compared major publishers.

8. Remainders

Remainders or remaindered books are books that are printed and which are not selling well.  These books are sold by the publisher at much reduced prices. The hardcover edition of the book will be not in print when the book becomes a remainder. In some cases, publishers offer the authors chance to purchase the books written by them at reduced price offered. The author does not get paid from the sales of the remainders,  but it allows the publisher to cover some of the printing costs.


Incunabula refers to the books whose printing was done till 1500 by utilizing metal type.  The printing of these books happened in the earliest period relating to typography in the 1450s in Europe till the January, 1501.  The completing of the incunabula was done when books were being hand-copied by many readers. There is a great collection of incunabula in the British library. Religious literature was published greatly in this period of publishing, specifically in Germany.

10.First edition

The first edition can be called to be the very first commercial version of the book. It cannot be stated as the earliest book version. Before this there will be different prepublication versions, and original manuscript of author.

11. Two Types of Research

The idea relating to the fact that media will have considerable impact led to two researches which are (1.) social scientific research, and (2.) cultural studies. Social scientific research helps in understanding and explaining the mass media effect on society and individuals. For this research, there will be hypothesis framed, and data collected through different methodologies, and finally inferences are made from the data.  On the other hand, cultural studies focuses on the interpretation of the media content basing on their cultural values. I believe that cultural studies is the most impactful of the two to understand media's influence as it will help me to interpret cultural experience in daily life, and also to analyze how mass communication affects other aspects in the society and economy.

Question 12

According to the social learning theory proposed by Bandura, people give attention to media, retain it, and reproduce it when there is incentive. People advocating for Agenda setting theory are of the belief that mass media sets up an agenda when it focuses its attention on specific issues and events.  According to cultivation effect theory, viewing Tv heavily results in the individuals to see the world in the same as it is portrayed in television. According to Spiral of silence theory, people who think that their views fall in the minority section on any issue confine views to themselves. Out of the four, I think that social learning theory best explains media effects as one can see increase in violence after the media started showing aggressive visuals.

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